RULE #1: If you are operating an acute care facility, your Emergency System (Life Safety and Critical Branches) will be online within 10 seconds (Type 10) of a power outage and will be able to operate without refueling for a period established by the AHJ (Class X).
If your facility is classified as a Type I or 2 installation as defined by NFPA 99, 22.214.171.124.6.1, you are a Type 10 (10 seconds maximum for the load side of the ATSs to be without acceptable power), Class X (which means the local AHJ, determines the amount of fuel you must have stored on site), Level 1 (where the failure of the equipment to perform could result in loss of human life or serious injury). If your facility is a Type 3, as defined by NFPA 99, 126.96.36.199.6.2, you are a Type 10, Class X, Level 2 (where equipment failure is less critical to human life and safety).
188.8.131.52.6.1 Type 1 and Type 2 essential electrical system power sources shall be classified as Type 10, Class X, Level 1 generator sets per NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.
184.108.40.206.6.2 Type 3 essential electrical system power sources shall be classified as Type 10, Class X, Level 2 generator sets per NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.
The Emergency Power Supply System (EPSS) must be designed and maintained to provide electrical power to transfer switches of the essential electrical system (EES). These transfer switches are wired to accept either normal power or ‘emergency’ power. Only prescribed groupings of all the wiring, or circuits, in a facility are connected to these transfer switches. Those circuits on the EES are grouped into the Life Safety, Critical, and Equipment Branch.
A thorough review of NFPA 99, 220.127.116.11.3, 18.104.22.168.4, and 22.214.171.124.5 should determine which equipment is allowed on each system.
The Life Safety Branch supplies power to those circuits used for egress lighting, alarms and alerting systems, emergency communication, generator set lighting, and elevator control.
The Critical Branch supplies power to those areas and receptacles associated with maintaining medical treatment. Transfer switches of the Life Safety and Critical Branch operate automatically to restore power to equipment and receptacles within 10 seconds of a power outage.
Transfer switches of the Equipment System are set to operate either automatically (but delayed) or manually. For the former, the delay time for transferring power to loads is determined by design engineers in coordination with facility needs and the manufacturer of the alternate power source.
Some facility managers start the EPS just once every 20-40 days for the “monthly” exercise, or test. While this procedure fulfills the minimum intent of the standards, a more conservative approach is to start and exercise the EPS for a period each week, under load if possible, allow the water temperature to rise to its “loaded temperature,” normally about 5 minutes, then shut the unit down. (If the EPS has been exercising under a heavy load, drop the load first and let the engine cool a minimum of 5 minutes before shutting it down.) If you are running a diesel EPS without load, or with a load below 30% of nameplate, we recommend exercising the set no longer than necessary to achieve “idling temperature.” Normally, this should take no longer than 5-7 minutes.
NFPA 99, 126.96.36.199.1.4(A) Generator sets shall be tested 12 times a year with testing intervals between not less than 20 days or exceeding 40 days. Generator sets serving emergency and equipment systems shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, Chapter 8.
All the EPSS components will be exercised automatically during the 20-40-day EPS exercise period, with the possible exception of some automatic transfer switches and alternate power feed circuit breakers. If normal power is available at the transfer switches, the power source must be “switched” using the test switch or by opening the normal power breaker feeding a particular switch.
The operation of the emergency power supply system (EPSS) depends on individuals well versed in maintenance, testing, and compliance. To date, no state licensing requirements exist that we are aware of for individuals responsible for the maintenance and testing of EPSSs; however, this may change.
Each facility should have at least one person who is familiar not only with the manufacturer’s guidelines but the standards governing maintenance and testing as well.
NFPA 99, 188.8.131.52.1.4(C) Test Personnel. The scheduled tests shall be conducted by competent personnel to keep the machines ready to function and, in addition, serve to detect causes of malfunction and to train personnel in operating procedures.
NFPA 110, 8.4.8 The routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.
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What should you know about current emergency power requirements? Much more than ten years ago with more in the years to come. Each component of the EPSS; cooling, electrical, fuel, lubrication, starting batteries and battery charging subsystems, all have their own unique needs.
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